Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications

Gallagher, A.J., Brownscombe, J.W., Alsudairy, N.A., Casagrande, A.B., Fu, C., Harding, L., Harris, S.D., Hammerschlag, N., Howe, W., & Huertas, A.D., et al. (2022).  Tiger sharks support the characterization of the world’s largest seagrass ecosystem. Nat Commun 13, 6328.;

Bowlby HD, Hammerschlag N, Irion DT and Gennari E (2022) How continuing mortality affects recovery potential for prohibited sharks: The case of white sharks in South Africa. Frontiers in Conservation Science 3:988693. doi: 10.3389/fcosc.2022.988693;

Irschick DJ, Christiansen F, Hammerschlag N, Martin J, Madsen P, Wyneken J, Brooks A, Gleiss A, Fossette S, Siler C, Gamble T, et al. (2022) 3D Visualization Processes for Recreating and Studying Organismal Form. iScience; 25(9): 104867;

Andrzejaczek S, Lucas TC, Goodman MC, Hussey NE, Armstrong AJ, Carlisle A, Coffey DM, Gleiss AC, Huveneers C, Jacoby DM, Meekan MG…Hammerschlag N, et al. (2022) Diving into the vertical dimension of elasmobranch movement ecology. Science Advances; 8(33):eabo1754.

Rangel BS, Moreira RG, Rider MJ, Sulikowski JA, Gallagher AJ, Heithaus MR, Cooke SJ, Kaufman L, Hammerschlag N. (2022) Physiological state predicts space use of sharks at a tourism provisioning site. Animal Behaviour; 191:149-63.

Lubitz N, Bradley M, Sheaves M, Hammerschlag N, Daly R, Barnett A. (2022). The role of context in elucidating drivers of animal movement. Ecology and Evolution, 12, e9128.

McClain MA, Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ, Drymon JM, Grubbs RD, Guttridge TL, Smukall MJ, Frazier BS, Daly-Engel TS (2022) Age-Dependent Dispersal and Relatedness in Tiger Sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). Front. Mar. Sci. 9:900107. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2022.900107

Hammerschlag N, Gutowsky LFG, Rider MJ, Roemer R, Gallagher AJ (2022) Urban sharks: residency patterns of marine top predators in relation to a coastal metropolis. Marine Ecology Progress Series 691:1-17.

Griffin LP, Casselberry GA, Lowerre‐Barbieri SK, Acosta A, Adams AJ, Cooke SJ, Filous A, Friess C, Guttridge TL, Hammerschlag N, Morley D, Rider MJ, Skomal GB, Smukall MJ, Danylchuk AJ, Brownscombe JW. (2022) Predator–prey landscapes of large sharks and game fishes in the Florida Keys. Ecological Applications:e2584.

Talwar BS, Bradley D, Berry C, Bond ME, Bouyoucos IA, Brooks AML, Fields KYA, Gallagher AJ, Guttridge TL, Guttridge AE, Hammerschlag N, et al. (2022) Estimated life-history traits and movements of the Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi) in The Bahamas based on tag-recapture data. Marine Biology 169, 55:

Rangel BS, Hammerschlag N, Martinelli LA, Moreira RG. (2022) Effects of urbanization on the nutritional ecology of a highly active coastal shark: Preliminary insights from trophic markers and body condition. Science of The Total Environment

Jorgensen SJ, Micheli F, White TD, Van Houtan KS, Alfaro-Shigueto J, Andrzejaczek S, Arnoldi NS, Baum JK, Block B, Britten GL, Butner C, Cardeñosa D, Chapple TK, Clarke D, Cortés E, Dulvy NK, Fowler S, Gallagher AJ, Gilman E, Godley BJ, Graham RT, Hammerschlag N, et al. (2022) Emergent research and priorities for shark and ray conservation. Endangered Species Research. 47:171-203.

Verkamp H, Hammerschlag N, Quinlan J, Langan J, Sulikowski J. (2022) Preliminary investigation of reproductive hormone profiles in the blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus), a placental viviparous species, in southern Florida. Marine and Freshwater Research. doi:10.1071/MF21235

Hammerschlag N, Fallows C, Meÿer M, Seakamela SM, Orndorff S, Kirkman S, Kotze D, Creel S. (2022). Loss of an apex predator in the wild induces physiological and behavioural changes in prey. Biology Letters; 18: 20210476

Hammerschlag N, McDonnell LH, Rider MJ, Street GM, Hazen EL, Natanson LJ, McCandless CT, Boudreau MR, Gallagher A J, Pinsky ML, Kirtman B (2022). Ocean warming alters the distributional range, migratory timing, and spatial protections of an apex predator, the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier). Global Change Biology, 00, 1–16.

Black C, Merly L, Hammerschlag N. (2021) Bacterial communities in multiple tissues across the body surface of three coastal shark species. Zoological Studies 60:69. doi:10.6620/ZS.2021.60-69.

Williams LH, Anstett A, Bach Muñoz V, Chisholm J, Fallows C, Green JR, Higuera Rivas JE, Skomal G., Winton M, Hammerschlag N. (2021) Sharks as exfoliators: widespread chafing between marine organisms suggests an unexplored ecological role. Ecology, e03570.

Bates AE, Primack RB, Duarte CM, and PAN-Environment Working Group (including Hammerschlag N, Rider MJ, Albano PS) (2021). Global COVID-19 lockdown highlights humans as both threats and custodians of the environment. Biological Conservation, (263). 109175.

Rider MJ, Kirsebom OS, Gallagher AJ, Staaterman E, Ault JS, Sasso CR, Jackson T, Browder JA, Hammerschlag N. (2021) Space use patterns of sharks in relation to boat activity in an urbanized coastal waterway. Marine Environmental Research. 172, 105489

Calich HJ, Rodríguez JP, Eguíluz VM, Hammerschlag N, Pattiaratchi C, Duarte CM, Sequeira AM. (2021) Comprehensive analytical approaches reveal species-specific search strategies in sympatric apex predatory sharks. Ecography

Jacoby DM, Fairbairn BS, Frazier BS, Gallagher AJ, Heithaus MR, Cooke SJ, Hammerschlag N. (2021) Social network analysis reveals the subtle impacts of tourist provisioning on the social behaviour of a generalist marine apex predator. Frontiers in Marine Science, 1202.

Albano PS, Fallows C, Fallows M, Sedgwick O, Schuitema O, Bernard ATF, Hammerschlag N. (2021) Successful parks for for sharks: no-take marine reserve provides conservation benefits to endemic and threatened sharks off South Africa; Biological Conservation;

Lowerre‐Barbieri SK, Friess C, Griffin LP, Morley D, Skomal GB, Bickford JW, Hammerschlag N, Rider MJ, Smukall MJ, van Zinnicq Bergmann MP, Guttridge TL, t al. (2021) Movescapes and eco‐evolutionary movement strategies in marine fish: Assessing a connectivity hotspot. Fish and Fisheries;

Rangel BS, Hammerschlag N, Sulikowski JA, Moreira RG. (2021) Physiological markers suggest energetic and nutritional adjustments in male sharks linked to reproduction. Oecologia.

Queiroz N, et al. (2021) Reply to: Caution over use of ecological big-data for conservation. Nature 595, E20-E28.

Queiroz N, et al. (2021) Reply to: Shark mortality cannot be assessed by fishery overlap alone. Nature 595, E8-E16.

Tinari AM, Hammerschlag N. (2021) An ecological assessment of large coastal shark communities in South Florida. Ocean & Coastal Management, 211(1):105772.

Gutowsky LF, Rider M, Roemer RP, Gallagher AJ, Heithaus MR, Cooke SJ, Hammerschlag N. (2021) Large sharks exhibit varying behavioral responses to major hurricanes. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 256(9):107373.

Sequeira AM, O’Toole M, Keates TR, McDonnell LH, Braun CD, Hoenner X, Jaine FR, Jonsen ID, Newman P, Pye J, Bograd SJ, et al. (2021) A standardisation framework for bio‐logging data to advance ecological research and conservation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 12(6):996-1007.

Wosnick N, Niella Y, Hammerschlag N, Chaves AP, Hauser-Davis RA, da Rocha RC, Jorge MB, de Oliveira RW, Nunes JL. (2021) Negative metal bioaccumulation impacts on systemic shark health and homeostatic balance. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 168(3):112398.

Rangel BS, Hammerschlag N, Sulikowski JA, Moreira RG (2021) Dietary and reproductive biomarkers in a generalist apex predator reveal differences in nutritional ecology across life stages. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 664:149-163

Friess C, Lowerre-Barbieri SK, Poulakis GR, Hammerschlag N, et al. (2021) Regional-scale variability in the movement ecology of marine fishes revealed by an integrative acoustic tracking network. Friess et al. 2021_egional-scale variability in the movement ecology of marine fishes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 663:157-177.

de Sousa Rangel B, Moreira RG, Niella YV, Sulikowski JA, Hammerschlag N. (2021) Metabolic and nutritional condition of juvenile tiger sharks exposed to regional differences in coastal urbanization. Science of The Total Environment, 780:146548.

Rider MJ, McDonnell LH, Hammerschlag N. (2021) Multi-year movements of adult and subadult bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas): philopatry, connectivity, and environmental influences. Aquatic Ecology, 55(3).

de Sousa Rangel B, Hammerschlag N, Moreira RG (2021) Urban living influences the nutritional quality of a juvenile shark species. Science of The Total Environment, 776:146025.

Gallagher AJ, Shipley ON, van Zinnicq Bergmann MPM, Brownscombe JW, Dahlgren CP, Frisk MG, Griffin LP, Hammerschlag N, Kattan S, Papastamatiou YP, Shea BD, Kessel ST, Duarte CM (2021) Spatial Connectivity and Drivers of Shark Habitat Use Within a Large Marine Protected Area in the Caribbean, The Bahamas Shark Sanctuary. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7:608848.

Shipley ON, Lee CS, Fisher NS, Sternlicht JK, Kattan S, Staaterman ER, Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ (2021) Metal concentrations in coastal sharks from The Bahamas with a focus on the Caribbean Reef shark. Scientific Reports, 11(218).

McDonnell LH, Jackson TL, Burgess GH, Phenix L, Gallagher AJ, Albertson H, Hammerschlag N, Browder JA. (2020) Saws and the city: smalltooth sawfish Pristis pectinata encounters, recovery potential, and research priorities in urbanized coastal waters off Miami, Florida, USA. Endangered Species Research, 43:543-53.

Moorhead SG, Gallagher AJ, Merly L, Hammerschlag N. (2020) Variation of body condition and plasma energy substrates with life stage, sex, and season in wild‐sampled nurse sharks Ginglymostoma cirratum. Journal of Fish Biology, 98(3):680-693.

Morgan A, Calich C, Sulikowski J, Hammerschlag N. (2020) Evaluating spatial management options for tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) conservation in US Atlantic Waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 77(7-8):3095-3109.

Skubel RA, Wilson K, Papastamatiou YP, Verkamp HJ, Sulikowski JA, Benetti D, Hammerschlag N. (2020) A scalable, satellite-transmitted data product for monitoring high-activity events in mobile aquatic animals. Animal Biotelemetry, 8(1).

Ajemian MJ, Drymon JM, Hammerschlag N, Wells RJD, Street G, Falterman B, et al. (2020) Movement patterns and habitat use of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across ontogeny in the Gulf of Mexico. PLoS ONE, 15(7):e0234868. https://doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0234868

Cartolano MC, Berenshtein I, Heuer RM, Pasparakis C, Rider M, Hammerschlag N, Paris CB, Grosell M, McDonald MD. (2020)  Impacts of a local music festival on fish stress hormone levels and the adjacent underwater soundscape. Environmental Pollution, 265(Pt A):114925.

Cooke SJ, J, Bergman JN, Nyboer EA, Reid AJ, Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Van de Riet K, Vermaire JC (2020) Overcoming the concrete conquest of aquatic ecosystems. Biological Conservation, 247:108589.

Gallagher AJ, Amon DJ, Bervoets T, Shipley ON, Hammerschlag N, Sims DW, (2020) The Caribbean needs big marine protected areas. Science, 367(6479):749.

AtallahBenson L, Merly L, Cray C, Hammerschlag N (2020) Serum protein analysis of nurse sharks. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 32(2):77-82.

Bohaboy EC, Guttridge TL, Hammerschlag N, Van Zinnicq Bergmann MP, Patterson WF. (2019) Application of three-dimensional acoustic telemetry to assess the effects of rapid recompression on reef fish discard mortality. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 77(1):83-96.

Flecker AS, Twining CW, Schmitz OJ, Cooke SJ, Hammerschlag N. (2019) Aquatic Predators Influence Micronutrients: Important but Understudied. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 34(10):882-883.

Shipley ON, Gallagher AJ, Shiffman DS, Kaufman L, Hammerschlag N. (2019) Diverse resource-use strategies in a large-bodied marine Predator guild: evidence from differential use of resource subsidies and intraspecific isotopic variation. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 623:71-83.

Queiroz N, et al. (2019) Global spatial risk assessment of sharks under the footprint of fisheries. Nature, 572:461-466.

Hammerschlag N (2019) Quantifying shark predation effects on prey: dietary data limitations and study approaches. Endangered Species Research, 38:147–151.

Shiffman DS, Heithaus MR, Kaufman L, Hammerschlag N (2019) Intraspecific differences in relative isotopic niche area and overlap of co-occurring sharks. Aquatic Ecology, 53(2):233-250. doi: 10.1007/s10452-019-09685-5

Martin KL, Abel DC, Crane D, Hammerschlag N, Burge EJ. (2019) Blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus presence at fishing piers in South Carolina: fidelity and environmental drivers. Journal of Fish Biology, 94(3):469-480.

Merly L, Lange L, Meÿer M, Hewitt AM, Koen P, Fischer C, Muller J, Schilack V, Wentzel M, Hammerschlag N. (2019) Blood plasma levels of heavy metals and trace elements in white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and potential health consequences. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 142(4):85-92.

Hays GC, Bailey H, Bograd SJ, Bowen WD, Campagna C, Carmichael RH, Casale P, Chiaradia A, Costa DP, Cuevas E, Bruyn PJND, Dias MP, Duarte CM, Dunn DC, Dutton PH, Esteban N, Friedlaender A, Goetz KT, Godley BJ, Halpin PN, Hamann M, Hammerschlag N, et al. (2019) Translating Marine Animal Tracking Data into Conservation Policy and Management. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 34(5):459-473.

Hammerschlag N, Schmitz OJ, Flecker AJ, Lafferty KD, Sih A, Atwood T, Gallagher AJ, Irschick DJ, Skubel R, Cooke SJ. (2019) Ecosystem Function and Services of Aquatic Predators in the Anthropocene. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 34(4):369-383.

Hammerschlag N, Williams L, Fallows M, Fallows C. (2019) Disappearance of white sharks leads to the novel emergence of an allopatric apex predator, the sevengill shark. Scientific Reports, 9(1):1908.

Rooker JR, Dance MA, Wells RJD, Ajemian MJ, Block BA, Castelton MR, Drymon JM, Falterman BJ, Franks JS, Hammerschlag N, Hoffmaer ER, Kraus RT, McKinney JA, Secor DH, Stunz GW, Walter JF. (2019) Population connectivity of pelagic megafauna in the Cuba-Mexico-U.S. triangle. Scientific Reports, 9(1):1663.

Wosnick N, Niella YV, Navas CA, Monteiro-Fiho ELA, Freire CA, Hammerschlag N. (2019) Multispecies thermal dynamics of air-exposed ectothermic sharks and its implications for fisheries conservation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology, 513(1):1-9.

Enchelmaier AC, Babcock EA, Hammerschlag N. (2018) Survey of fishes within a restored mangrove habitat of a subtropical bay. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 244:106021.

Calich H, Estevanez M, Hammerschlag N. (2018) Overlap between highly suitable habitats and longline gear management areas reveals vulnerable and protected regions for highly migratory sharks. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 602:183-195.

Wosnick N, Navas CA, Niella YV, Monteiro-Filho ELA, Freire CA, Hammerschlag N. (2018) Thermal Imaging Reveals Changes in Body Surface Temperatures of Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) during Air Exposure. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 91(5):1005-1012.

Glynn, P.W., Coffman, B., Primov, K.D., Moorhead, S.G., Vanderwoude, J., Barrales, R.N., Williams, M.K. and Roemer, R.P., (2018) Benthic ctenophores (Platyctenida: Coeloplanidae) in South Florida: predator–prey interactions. Invertebrate Biology.

Hammerschlag N, Skubel RA, Sulikowski J, Irschick DJ, Gallagher AJ. (2018) A Comparison of Reproductive and Energetic States in a Marine Apex Predator (the Tiger Shark, Galeocerdo cuvier). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 91(4):933-942. https://10.1086/698496

Sequeira AMM, Rodríguez JPP, Eguíluz VM, Harcourt R, Hindell M, Sims DW, Duarte CW, Costa DP, Fernández-Gracia J, Ferreira LC, Hays GC, Heupel MR, Meekan MG, Aven A, Bailleul F, Baylis AMM, Berumen ML, Braun CD, Burns J, Caley MJ, Campbell R, Carmichael RH, Clua E, Einoder LD, Friedlaender A, Goebel ME, Goldsworthy SD, Guinet C, Gunn J, Hamer D, Hammerschlag N, Hammill M, Hückstädt LA, Humphries NE, Lea MA, Lowther A, Mackay A, McHuron E, McKenzie J, McLeay L, McMahon CR, Mengersen K, Muelbert MMC, Pagano AM, Page B, Queiroz N, Robinson PW, Shaffer SA, Shivji M, Skomal GB, Thorrold SR, Villegas-Amtmann S, Weise M, Wells R, Wetherbee B, Wiebkin A, Wienecke B, Thums M. (2018). Convergence of marine megafauna movement patterns in coastal and open oceans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(12).

Skubel RA, Kirtman BP, Fallows C, Hammerschlag N (2018) Patterns of long-term climate variability and predation rates by a marine apex predator, the white shark Carcharodon carcharias. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 587:129-139.

Hammerschlag N, Barley SC, Irschick DJ, Meeuwig JJ, Nelson ER, Meekan MG (2018) Predator declines and morphological changes in prey: evidence from coral reefs depleted of sharks. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 586:127-139.

Hammerschlag N, Meÿer M, Seakamela S M, Kirkman S, Fallows C, Creel S. (2017) Physiological stress responses to natural variation in predation risk: evidence from white sharks and seals. Ecology, 98(12):3199–3210.

Jerome JM, Gallagher AJ, Cooke SJ, Hammerschlag N. (2017) Integrating reflexes with physiological measures to evaluate coastal shark stress response to capture. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 75(2):796-804.

Macdonald C, Gallagher AJ, Barnett A, Brunnschweiler J, Shiffman DS, Hammerschlag N. (2017) Conservation potential of apex predator tourism. Biological Conservation, 215: 132-141.

Klimley AP, Flagg M, Hammerschlag N, Hearn A. (2017) The value of using measurements of geomagnetic field in addition to irradiance and sea surface temperature to estimate geolocations of tagged aquatic animals. Animal Biotelemetry, 5:19. DOI: 10.1186/s40317-017-0134-y

Glynn PW, Coffman B, Fuller MPC, Moorhead SG, Williams MK, Primov KD, Fortson TN, Barrales RN, Glynn PJ. (2017) Benthic ctenophores (Platyctenida: Coeloplanidae) in south Florida: environmental conditions, habitats, abundances, and behaviors. Invertebrate Biology x(x): 1-15.

Acuña-Marrero D, Smith ANH, Hammerschlag N, Hearn A, Anderson MJ, Calich H, et al. (2017) Residency and movement patterns of an apex predatory shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at the Galapagos Marine Reserve. PLoS ONE, 12(8).

Irschick DJ, Fu A, Lauder G, Wilga C, Kuo C-Y, Hammerschlag N. (2017) A comparative morphological analysis of body and fin shape for eight shark species. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 122(3):1-16.

Shiffman DS, Macdonald C, Ganz HY, Hammerschlag N. (2017) Fishing practices and representations of shark conservation issues among users of a land-based shark angling online forum. Fisheries Research, 196: 13-26.

Kough AS, Cronin H, Skubel R, Belak CA, Stoner AW. (2017) Efficacy of an established marine protected area at sustaining a queen conch Lobatus gigaspopulation during three decades of monitoring. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 573:177-189.

Hammerschlag N, Gutowsky LFG, Gallagher AJ, Matich P, Cooke SJ. (2017) Diel habitat use patterns of a marine apex predator (tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier) at a high use area exposed to dive tourism. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 495(2): 24-34.

Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ. (2017) Extinction Risk and Conservation of the Earth’s National Animal Symbols. BioScience, 67(8): 744-749.

Gallagher AJ, Shiffman DS, Byrnes EE, Hammerschlag-Peyer CM, Hammerschlag N. (2017) Patterns of resource use and isotopic niche overlap among three species of sharks occurring within a protected subtropical estuary. Aquatic Ecology, 51(1):435-448. DOI: 10.1007/s10452-017-9627-2

Cooke SJ, Gallagher AJ, Sopinka NM, Nguyen VM, Skubel RA, Hammerschlag N, Boon S, Young N, and Danylchuk AJ (2017) Considerations for effective science communication. FACETS, 2(1):233-248.

Gallagher AJ, Skubel RA, Pethybridge HR, Hammerschlag N. (2017) Energy metabolism in mobile, wild-sampled sharks inferred by plasma lipids. Conservation Physiology, 5(1).

Matulik AG, Kerstetter DW, Hammerschlag N, Divoll T, Hammerschmidt CR, Evers DC. (2017) Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury and methylmercury in four sympatric coastal sharks in a protected subtropical lagoon. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 116(1):357-364.

Hammerschlag N, Meyer C, Grace M, Kessel S, Sutton T, Harvey E, Paris C, Kerstetter D, Cooke SJ. (2017) Shining a Light on Fish at Night: an overview of patterns and processes operating in fish and fisheries at night and in the perpetual darkness of deep and polar seas. Bulletin of Marine Science -Miami-, 93(2): 253-284.

Hammerschlag N, Skubel R, Calich H, Nelson ER, Shiffman DS, Wester J, Macdonald C, Cain S, Jennings L, Enchaelmaier A, Gallagher AJ. (2017) Nocturnal and crepuscular behavior in elasmobranchs: a review of movement, habitat use, foraging, and reproduction in the dark. Bulletin of Marine Science -Miami-, 93(2):355-374.

Rangel BdS, Wosnick N, Hammerschlag N, Ciena AP, Kfoury Junior JR. Rici REG (2016) A preliminary investigation into the morphology of oral papillae and denticles of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) with inferences about its functional significance across life stages. Journal of Anatomy, 230(3):389-397.

Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Danylchuk AJ, Cooke SJ. (2016) Shark recreational fisheries: Status, challenges, and research needs. Ambio; 1-14.

Gallagher AJ, Staaterman ER, Cooke SJ, Hammerschlag N. (2016) Behavioral responses to fisheries capture among various shark species reveal mechanisms of species-specific sensitivity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences; 74(1): 1-7.

Fallows C, Fallows M, Hammerschlag N. (2016) Effects of lunar phase on predator-prey interactions between white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus). Environmental Biology of Fishes; 99(11): 805-812.

Hammerschlag N, Davis DA, Mondo K, Seely MS, Murch SJ, Glover WB, Divoll T, Evers DC, Mash DC. (2016) Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin BMAA and Mercury in Sharks. Toxins 2016, 8, 238.

Hammerschlag N, Bell I, Fitzpatrick I, Gallagher AJ, Hawkes LA, Meekan MG, Stevens JD, Thums M, Witt MJ, Barnett A. (2016) Behavioral evidence suggests facultative scavenging by a marine apex predator during a food pulse. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology; 70(1): 1777-1788.

Roemer RP, Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N. (2016) Shallow water tidal flat use and associated specialized foraging behavior of the great hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran). Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology; 49(4): 235-249.

Cooke SJ, Nguyen VM, Wilson AD, Donaldson MR, Gallagher A, Hammerschlag N, Haddaway NR. (2016) The need for speed in a crisis discipline: perspectives on peer review duration and implications for conservation science. Endangered Species Research 30: 11-19

Shiffman, D.S. and Hammerschlag, N. (2016) Shark Conservation and Management Policy: A Review and Primer for Non-Specialists. Animal Conservation; 19(5): 401-412.

Fu A, Lauder G, Wilga C, Kuo C, Hammerschlag N, Irschick DJ. (2016) Ontogeny of head and caudal fin shape of an apex marine predator: the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier). Journal of Morphology; 277(5): 556-564.

Shiffman, DS and Hammerschlag, N. (2016) Preferred conservation policies of shark researchers. Conservation Biology; 30(4): 805-815.

Graham F, Rynne P, Estevanez M, Luo J, Ault JS, Hammerschlag N. (2016) Use of marine protected areas and exclusive economic zones in the subtropical western North Atlantic Ocean by large highly mobile sharks. Diversity and Distributions; 22(5): 534-546.

Queiroz N, Humphries N.E., Mucientes G., Hammerschlag N, Lima F.P, Scales K.L, Miller P.I., Sousa L.L., Seabra R., Sims D.W. (2016) Ocean-wide tracking of pelagic sharks reveals extent of overlap with longline fishing hotspots. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; 113(6): 1582-1587.

Sulikowski J, Wheeler CR, Gallagher AJ, Prohaska BK, Langan JA, Hammerschlag N. (2016) Seasonal and life-stage variation in the reproductive ecology of a marine apex predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier, at a protected female dominated site. Aquatic Biology, 24: 175-184

Creel S, Becker M, Christianson D, Dröge E, Hammerschlag N, Haward MW, Karanth U, Loveridge A, Macdonald DW, Wigganson M, M’soka J, Murray D, Rosenblatt E, Schuette P. (2015) Questionable policy for large carnivore hunting. Science, 350(6267): 1473-1475

Gallagher AJ, Cooke SJ, Hammerschlag N. (2015) Risk perceptions and conservation ethic among recreational anglers targeting threatened sharks in the subtropical Atlantic. Endangered Species Research, 29(1): 81-93.

Thaler, A.D.T. and Shiffman, D.S. (2015) Fish tales: Combating fake science in popular media. Ocean and Coastal Management

Nguyen VM, Haddaway NR, Gutowsky LFG, Wilson ADM, Gallagher AJ, Donaldson MR, Hammerschlag N, Cooke SJ. (2015) How Long Is Too Long in Contemporary Peer Review? Perspectives from Authors Publishing in Conservation Biology Journals. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0132557.

Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Cooke SJ, Costa DP, Irschick DJ (2015) One size does not always fit all: a reply to Stroud and Feeley. Trends in Ecology and Evolution; 30(6): 297-298.

Hammerschlag N, Broderick AC, Coker JW, Coyne MS, Dodd M, Frick MG, Godfrey MH, Godley BJ, Griffin DB, Hartog K, Murphy SR, Murphy TM, Nelson ER, Williams KL, Witt MJ, Hawkes LA (2015) Evaluating the landscape of fear between apex predatory sharks and mobile sea turtles across a large dynamic seascape. Ecology, 96(8): 2117-2126.

Gallagher AJ, Vianna GMS, Papastamatiou YP, Macdonald C, Guttridge TL, Hammerschlag N. (2015) Biological effects, conservation potential, and research priorities of shark diving tourism. Biological Conservation, 184: 365-379

Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Cooke SJ, Costa DP, Irschick DJ (2015) Evolutionary theory as a tool for predicting extinction risk. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 30(2): 61-65

Fallows C, Benoit HP, Hammerschlag N. (2015) Intraguild predation and partial consumption of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) by Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus). African Journal of Marine Science; 37(1): 125-128.

D.S. Shiffman, A.J. Gallagher, J. Wester C.C. Macdonald, A.D. Thaler, S.J. Cooke, and N. Hammerschlag. (2015) A letter of clarification from the authors of “trophy fishing for species threatened with extinction”. Marine Policy 53, 213-214.

Ferry, L., and Shiffman, D.S. (2014) The Value of Taxon-focused Science: 30 Years of Elasmobranchs in Biological Research and Outreach. Copeia 743-746.

Hammerschlag N, Cooke SJ, Gallagher AJ, Godley BJ. (2013) Considering the fate of electronic tags: user responsibility and interactions when encountering tagged marine animals; Methods in Ecology and Evolution; 11(5): 1147-1153.

Shiffman DS, Hammerschlag N. (2014) An assessment of the scale, practices, and conservation implications of Florida’s charterboat-based recreational shark fishery. Fisheries, 39(9): 395-407

Irschick, DJ, Hammerschlag N. (2014) Morphological scaling of body form in four shark species differing in ecology and life-history. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society; 114(1): 126-135.

Shiffman, D.S, Gallagher AJ, Wester, Macdonald C, Thaler AD, Cooke SJ, Hammerschlag N (2014) Trophy fishing for species threatened with extinction: a way forward building on a history of conservation Marine Policy, 50: 318-322

Shiffman, D.S. (2014) Commentary: Keeping swimmers safe without killing sharks is a revolution in shark control. Animal Conservation DOI: 10.1111/acv.12155

Gallagher AJ, Orbesen ES, Hammerschlag N, Serafy JE (2014) Survival and vulnerability of pelagic shark species to pelagic longline bycatch. Global Ecology and Conservation; 1: 50-59.

Rumbold D, Wasno B, Hammerschlag N, Volety A. (2014) Mercury accumulation in sharks from the coastal waters of Southwest Florida. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology; 67(3): 402-412.

Irschick DI., Hammerschlag N. (2014) A new metric for measuring condition in large predatory sharks. Journal of Fish Biology; 85(3), 917-926.

Gallagher, AJ, Wagner, DN, Irschick, DJ, Hammerschlag, N. (2014) Body condition predicts energy stores in apex predatory sharks. Conservation Physiology; 2 (1): cou022

Shiffman, DS, Frazier, B, Kucklick, J, Abel, D, Brandes, J and Sancho, G. (2014) Feeding ecology of the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) in South Carolina estuaries revealed through δ13C and δ15N stable isotope analysis. Marine and Coastal Fisheries; 6(1): 156-169

Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Shiffman DS, Giery ST (2014) Evolved for extinction: the cost and conservation implications of extreme specialization in hammerhead sharks.BioScience; 64(7): 619-624.

Staaterman ER, Bhandiwad AA, Gravinese PM, Moeller PM, Reichenbach ZC, Shantz AA, Shiffman DS, Toth LT, Warneke AM, Gallagher AJ. (2014) Lights, camera, science: The utility and growing popularity of film festivals at scientific meetings. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 7: 11-16.

Cooke SJ, Hogan ZS, Butcher PA, Stokesbury MJW, Raghavan R, Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N, Danylchuk AJ. (2014) Angling for endangered fish: Conservation problem or conservation action? Fish and Fisheries; 17(1): 249-265.

Gallagher AJ, Romeiro J, Canabal D, Canabal V, Hammerschlag N (2014) Novel social behaviors in a threatened apex marine predator, the oceanic whitetip shark Carcharhinus longimanus. Ethology Ecology & Evolution; 26(4), 413-417.

Gallagher, AJ, Serafy, JE, Cooke, SJ, Hammerschlag, N (2014) Physiological stress response, reflex impairment, and survival of five sympatric shark species following experimental capture and release. Marine Ecology Progress Series; 494: 207-218

ECM Parsons, DS Shiffman, ES Darling, N Spillman, and AJ Wright. (2013) How Twitter Literacy Can Benefit Conservation Scientists. Conservation Biology.

Darling E, Shiffman D, Drew J, and Cote Isabelle (2013) The role of twitter in the life cycle of a scientific publication. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 6, 32-43.

Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ, Carlson JK. (2013) A revised estimate of daily ration in the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) with implications for assessing ecosystem impacts of apex predators. Functional Ecology 27 (5): 1273-1274.

Fallows C, Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N (2013) White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) Scavenging on Whales and Its Potential Role in Further Shaping the Ecology of an Apex Predator. PLoS ONE 8(4): e60797. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060797.

Carr, LA, Stier, AC, Fietz, K, Montero, I, Gallagher, AJ, Bruno, JF. (2013) Illegal shark fishing in the Galapagos Marine Reserve Marine Policy 39: 317-321.

Hammerschlag N, Luo J, Irschick DJ, Ault JS (2012) A Comparison of Spatial and Movement Patterns between Sympatric Predators: Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) and Atlantic Tarpon (Megalops atlanticus). PLoS ONE 7(9): e45958. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045958.

Shifman DS. (2012) Twitter as a tool for conservation education and outreach: what scientific conferences can do to promote live-tweeting. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences DOI 10.1007/s13412-012-0080-1.

Shiffman DS, Gallagher AJ, Boyle MD, Hammerschlag-Peyer CM, Hammerschlag N. (2012, Cover) Stable Isotope Analysis as a Tool for Elasmobranch Conservation Research: A Primer for Non-Specialists. Marine and Freshwater Research 63:635-643.

Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ, Wester J, Luo J, Ault JS. (2012, Cover) Don’t bite the hand that feeds: assessing ecological impacts of provisioning ecotourism on an apex marine predator. Functional Ecology 26(3): 567-576

Gallagher AJ, Kyne PM, Hammerschlag N. (2012) Ecological risk assessment and its application to elasmobranch conservation and management. Journal of Fish Biology 85(5): 1727-1748

Martin RA, Hammerschlag N. (2012) Marine predator—prey contests: Ambush and speed versus vigilance and agility. Marine Biology Research 8:1, 90-94.

Mondo K, Hammerschlag N, Basile M, Pablo J, Banack SA, Mash DC. (2012) Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in Shark Fins. Marine Drugs 10(2), 509-520; doi:10.3390/md10020509

Thaler AD, Zelnio KA, Freitag A, MacPherson R, Shiffman DS, Bik H, Goldstein MC, McClain C. (2012) Digital environmentalism: tools and strategies for the evolving online ecosystem. SAGE Reference — Environmental Leadership: A Reference Handbook D. Gallagher (Ed.).

Fallows C, Martin RA, Hammerschlag N. (2012) Comparisons between white shark-pinniped interactions at Seal Island (South Africa) with other sites in California (United States). Global Perspectives on the Biology and Life History of the Great White Shark, ed. Michael L. Domeier, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Hammerschlag N, Martin RA, Fallows C, Collier R, Lawrence R. (2012) Investigatory Behavior towards surface objects and Non-consumptive Strikes on Seabirds by White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) at Seal Island, South Africa. Global Perspectives on the Biology and Life History of the Great White Shark, ed. Michael L. Domeier, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL: 91-103.

Hammerschlag N, Trussell G. (2011) Beyond the Body Count: Behavioral Downgrading of Planet Earth. Science. (E-Letter, 11 November 2011).

Gallagher AJ, Jackson T, Hammerschlag N. (2011) Evidence of tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) scavenging on avian prey and its possible connection between large-scale bird die-offs in the Florida Keys. Florida Scientist, 74(4):264-269.

Staaterman ER, Clark CW, Gallagher AJ, deVries, MS, Claverie T, Patek SN. (2011) Rumbling in the benthos: the acoustic behavior of the California mantis shrimp and the presence anthropogenic noise. Aquatic Biology, 13(2):97–105.

Hammerschlag N, Sulikowski J. (2011) Killing for Conservation: The Need for Alternatives to Lethal Sampling of Apex Predatory Sharks. Endangered Species Research, 14(2):135–140.

Gallagher AJ, Hammerschlag N. (2011) Global Shark Currency: The Distribution, Frequency and Economic Value of Shark Eco-tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 14(8):1–16. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2011.585227.

Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ, Lazarre DM. (2011) A Review of Shark Satellite Tagging Studies. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 398(1):1–8.

Hammerschlag N, Gallagher AJ, Lazarre DM, Slonim C. (2011) Range extension of the endangered great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran in the Northwest Atlantic: Preliminary data and significance for conservation. Endangered Species Research, 13(2):111–116.

Serrano X, Grosell M, Serafy JE. (2011) Osmoregulatory capabilities of the gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus: salinity challenges and field observations. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 44(3):1-12.

Brand LE, Pablo J, Compton A, Hammerschlag N, Mash DC. (2010) Cyanobacterial Blooms and the Occurrence of the neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in South Florida Aquatic Food Webs. Harmful Algae, 9(6):620–635.

Hammerschlag N, Heithaus MR, Serafy JE. (2010) The influence of predation risk and food supply on nocturnal fish foraging distributions along a subtropical mangrove-seagrass ecotone. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 414:223-235.

Hammerschlag N, Ovando D, Serafy, JE. (2010) Seasonal diet and feeding habits of juvenile fishes foraging along a subtropical marine ecotone. Aquatic Biology, 9(3):279–290.

Hammerschlag N, Morgan A, Serafy JE. (2010) Relative predation risk for fishes along a subtropical mangrove-seagrass ecotone. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 401: 259–267.

Hammerschlag N, Serafy JE. (2010) Nocturnal fish utilization of a subtropical mangrove-seagrass ectone. Marine Ecology, 31(2):364–374.

Gallagher AJ, Lorenz FH, Bushnell PG, Brill RW, Mandelman JW. (2010) Blood Gas, Oxygen Saturation, pH, and Lactate Values in Elasmobranch Blood Measured with a Commercially Available Portable Clinical Analyzer and Standard Laboratory Instruments, Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 22(4) 229–234.

Serrano X, Grosell M, Serafy JE. (2010) Salinity selection and preference of the grey snapper Lutjanus griseus: field and laboratory observations. Journal of Fish Biology, 76(7): 1592–1608.

Martin RA, Rossmo DK, Hammerschlag N. (2009) Hunting patterns and geographic profiling of white shark predation. Journal of Zoology, 279(2): 111–118.

Milano GR, Hammerschlag N, Barimo J, Serafy JE. (2007) Restoring essential fish habitat in southeast Florida: Mangrove and seagrass habitat design components and successful monitoring. Bulletin of Marine Science, 80(3): 928-929.

Hammerschlag N, Martin RA, Fallows C. (2006) Effects of environmental conditions on predator-prey interactions between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) at Seal Island, South Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 76(2): 341–350.

Hammerschlag N. (2006) Osmoregulation in Elasmobranchs: A review for fish biologists, behaviourists and ecologists. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 39(3): 209–228.

Martin RA, Hammerschlag N, Collier R, Fallows C. (2005) Predatory Behaviour of White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) at Seal Island, South Africa. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 85(5): 1121–1135.

Hammerschlag N, Fallows C. (2005) Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis) at the Bassas da India atoll: first record from the Mozambique Channel and possible significance as a nursery area. South African Journal of Science, 101: 375–377.

Hammerschlag N. (2004) A review of osmoregulation in freshwater and marine elasmobranchs. In: R.A. Martin and D. MacKinlay (ed.) Extended Abstract in Proceedings of the American Fisheries Society, fourth International Congress on the Biology of Fish, Manaus, Brazil: 35-41.